[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 10, Issue 3 (Autumn 2022) ::
Iran J Health Educ Health Promot 2022, 10(3): 299-315 Back to browse issues page
The Design and Psychometric Properties of the Tendency to Use Covid-19 Vaccine Questionnaire based on the Health Belief Model
Javad Kazemi , Mohsen Saffari , Mehdi Raei , Hojat Rashidi-Jahan , Fatemeh Rahmati *
Abstract:   (756 Views)
Background and Objective: It is necessary to have a suitable tool for measuring the tendency to use the Covid-19 vaccine. The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the tendency to use Covid-19 vaccine questionnaire among health care workers of a hospital in Tehran, Iran. 

Materials and Methods: This is an instrumentation type of methodological. Fifty-six questions were considered as the items of the questionnaire. For testing the validity, the face validity and content validity were used in correspondence with 10 experts’ opinions. Reliability check was performed through the Cronbach's alpha and test- retest. Finally, the structural validity was evaluated with 474 subjects.

Results: The results showed that the scales of the tendency to use Covid-19 vaccine questionnaire have an appropriate face validity for all items with an impact score higher than 1.5 and an appropriate content validity ratio in the range of 0.70 and a sufficient content validity index in the range of 0.73 to 087. Also, it had an acceptable internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha) in the range of 0.87 to 0.96. Also, the reliability of the test-retest ranged from 0.68 to 0.92. For the structural validity, 8 factors were selected with a factor value higher than 0.4. Also, in the confirmatory section of the factors an acceptable goodness of fit index (GFI) (Range from 0.91 to 0.98) and the root mean square error in the range of 0.33 to 0.49 was achieved. In total, four questions were removed in the content validity ratio review stage and one question was removed in the content validity index review stage.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the tendency to use Covid-19 vaccine questionnaire has sufficient validity and reliability and is a suitable tool for evaluating the health staff’s tendency towards vaccination. Ultimately, this questionnaire was approved with 8 factors (perceived sensitivity, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, ‌self-efficacy, knowledge and behavior) and 51 questions.

Keywords: COVID-19, Health Belief Model, Vaccination.
Full-Text [PDF 738 kb]   (398 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Health Behavior
Received: 2022/03/13 | Accepted: 2022/08/10
1. Freeman D, Loe BS, Yu L-M, Freeman J, Chadwick A, Vaccari C, et al. Effects of different types of written vaccination information on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the UK (OCEANS-III): a single-blind, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Public Health. 2021;6(6):e416-e27 [DOI:10.1016/S2468-2667(21)00096-7]
2. Knight H, Jia R, Ayling K, Bradbury K, Baker K, Chalder T, et al. Understanding and Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy in the Context of COVID-19: Development of a Digital intervention. medRxiv. 2021. [DOI:10.1101/2021.03.24.21254124]
3. Ganji A, Gh M, Khaki M, Ghazavi A. A Review on Immunopathogenesis, Molecular Biology and Clinical Aspects of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19). Journal of Arak University of Medical Sciences (JAMS). 2020;23(1):8-21. [DOI:10.32598/JAMS.]
4. Akel KB, Masters NB, Shih S-F, Lu Y, Wagner AL. Modification of a Vaccine Hesitancy Scale for use in adult vaccinations in the United States and China. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 2021:1-8. [DOI:10.1080/21645515.2021.1884476] [PMID] [PMCID]
5. Freeman D, Loe BS, Chadwick A, Vaccari C, Waite F, Rosebrock L, et al. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the UK: the Oxford coronavirus explanations, attitudes, and narratives survey (Oceans) II. Psychological medicine. 2020:1-15. [DOI:10.1017/S0033291720005188]
6. Askarian M, Fu L, Taghrir MH, Borazjani R, Shayan Z, Taherifard E, et al. Factors affecting COVID-19 vaccination intent among Iranians: COVID-19 vaccination acceptance. 2020.
7. Kalam MA, Davis TP, Shano S, Uddin N, Islam MA, Kanwagi R, et al. Exploring the Behavioral Determinants of COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance among an Urban Population in Bangladesh: Implications for Behavior Change Interventions. medRxiv. 2021. [DOI:10.1101/2021.04.23.21255974]
8. Thaker J. The persistence of vaccine hesitancy: COVID-19 vaccination intention in New Zealand. Journal of Health Communication. 2021;26(2):104-11. [DOI:10.1080/10810730.2021.1899346] [PMID]
9. Bhopal S, Nielsen M. Vaccine hesitancy in low-and middle-income countries: potential implications for the COVID-19 response. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2021;106(2):113-4. https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2020-318988 [DOI:10.1136/archdischild-2020-318988.] [PMID]
10. Ahorsu DK, Lin C-Y, Yahaghai R, Alimoradi Z, Broström A, Griffiths MD, et al. The mediational role of trust in the healthcare system in the association between generalized trust and willingness to get COVID-19 vaccination in Iran. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 2021:1-8. [DOI:10.1080/21645515.2021.1993689] [PMID] [PMCID]
11. Ansari-Moghaddam A, Seraji M, Sharafi Z, Mohammadi M, Okati-Aliabad H. The protection motivation theory for predict intention of COVID-19 vaccination in Iran: a structural equation modeling approach. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):1-9. [DOI:10.1186/s12889-021-11134-8] [PMID] [PMCID]
12. Yeh Y-C, Chen I-H, Ahorsu DK, Ko N-Y, Chen K-L, Li P-C, et al. Measurement invariance of the drivers of covid-19 vaccination acceptance scale: Comparison between taiwanese and mainland chinese-speaking populations. Vaccines. 2021;9(3):297. [DOI:10.3390/vaccines9030297] [PMID] [PMCID]
13. Maneesriwongul W, Butsing N, Visudtibhan PJ, Leelacharas S, Kittipimpanon K. Translation and Psychometric Testing of the Thai COVID-19 Vaccine Literacy Scale. Pacific Rim International Journal of Nursing Research. 2022;26(1):179-90.
14. Ramshini H, Kaffash A. Review of recent progress and future perspectives on the diagnosis, treatment and management of Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19). Journal of Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences. 2021;27(6):852-9.
15. Shmueli L. Predicting intention to receive COVID-19 vaccine among the general population using the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior model. BMC Public Health. 2021;13-1(1), 21. [DOI:10.1186/s12889-021-10816-7] [PMID] [PMCID]
16. Mohamed HA, Abdelkader SM, Al-Shehri AH. Application of Health Belief Model on COVID Vaccine Acceptance among Employees University in Namas City. American Journal of Nursing. 2021;9(6):182-90. [DOI:10.12691/ajnr-9-6-1]
17. Zampetakis LA, Melas C. The health belief model predicts vaccination intentions against COVID‐19: A survey experiment approach. Applied Psychology: Health and Well‐Being. 2021;13(2):469-84. [DOI:10.1111/aphw.12262] [PMID] [PMCID]
18. Al‐Metwali BZ, Al‐Jumaili AA, Al‐Alag ZA, Sorofman B. Exploring the acceptance of COVID‐19 vaccine among healthcare workers and general population using health belief model. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 2021. [DOI:10.1111/jep.13581] [PMID] [PMCID]
19. Kline R. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Applied quantitative analysis in the social sciences. 2013:171-207.
20. Lawshe CH. A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel psychology. 1975;28(4):563-75. [DOI:10.1111/j.1744-6570.1975.tb01393.x]
21. Polit DF, Beck CT, Owen SV. Is the CVI an acceptable indicator of content validity? Appraisal and recommendations. Research in nursing & health. 2007;30(4):459-67. [DOI:10.1002/nur.20199] [PMID]
22. Senanayake S, Gunawardena N, Palihawadana P, Kularatna S, Peiris T. Validity and reliability of the Sri Lankan version of the kidney disease quality of life questionnaire (KDQOL-SF™). Health and quality of life outcomes. 2017;15(1):1-9. [DOI:10.1186/s12955-017-0697-6] [PMID] [PMCID]
23. Cureton EE, D'Agostino RB. Factor analysis:An applied approach: Psychology press; 2013 [DOI:10.4324/9781315799476]
24. Longmuir PE, Woodruff SJ, Boyer C, Lloyd M, Tremblay MS. Physical Literacy Knowledge Questionnaire: feasibility, validity, and reliability for Canadian children aged 8 to 12 years. BMC public health. 2018;18(2):1-11. [DOI:10.1186/s12889-018-5890-y] [PMID] [PMCID]
25. Jorvand R, Tavousi M, Ghofranipour F. Impact of sport on the cardiovascular diseases scale based on health belief model: questionnaire psychometric properties. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2018;20:1-9. [DOI:10.5812/ircmj.62027]
26. Terwee CB, Bot SD, de Boer MR, van der Windt DA, Knol DL, Dekker J, et al. Quality criteria were proposed for measurement properties of health status questionnaires. Journal of clinical epidemiology. 2007;60(1):34-42. [DOI:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2006.03.012] [PMID]
27. Kocoglu‐Tanyer D, Dengiz KS, Sacikara Z. Development and psychometric properties of the public attitude towards vaccination scale-Health belief model. Journal of advanced nursing. 2020;76(6):1458-68. [DOI:10.1111/jan.14349] [PMID]
28. Wong LP, Alias H, Wong P-F, Lee HY, AbuBakar S. The use of the health belief model to assess predictors of intent to receive the COVID-19 vaccine and willingness to pay. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 2020;16(9):2204-14. [DOI:10.1080/21645515.2020.1790279] [PMID] [PMCID]
29. Patwary MM, Bardhan M, Disha AS, Hasan M, Haque M, Sultana R, et al. Determinants of COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance among the Adult Population of Bangladesh Using the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behavior Model. Vaccines. 2021;9(12):1393. [DOI:10.3390/vaccines9121393] [PMID] [PMCID]
30. Mohamed NC, Moey S-F, Lim B-C. Validity and reliability of health belief model questionnaire for promoting breast self-examination and screening mammogram for early cancer detection. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP. 2019;20(9):2865. [DOI:10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.9.2865] [PMID] [PMCID]
31. Shahnazi H, Ahmadi-Livani M, Pahlavanzadeh B, Rajabi A, Hamrah MS, Charkazi A. Assessing preventive health behaviors from COVID-19: a cross sectional study with health belief model in Golestan Province, Northern of Iran. Infectious diseases of poverty. 2020;9(1):1-9. [DOI:10.1186/s40249-020-00776-2] [PMID] [PMCID]
32. Wong MC, Wong EL, Huang J, Cheung AW, Law K, Chong MK, et al. Acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine based on the health belief model: A population-based survey in Hong Kong. Vaccine. 2021;39(7):1148-56. [DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.12.083] [PMID] [PMCID]
33. Mercadante AR, Law AV. Will they, or Won't they? Examining patients' vaccine intention for flu and COVID-19 using the Health Belief Model. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy. 2021;17(9):1596-605. [DOI:10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.12.012] [PMID] [PMCID]
34. Yu Y, Lau JT, She R, Chen X, Li L, Li L, et al. Prevalence and associated factors of intention of COVID-19 vaccination among healthcare workers in China: Application of the Health Belief Model. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 2021;17(9):2894-902. [DOI:10.1080/21645515.2021.1909327] [PMID] [PMCID]
35. Shmueli L. Predicting intention to receive COVID-19 vaccine among the general population using the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior model. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):1-13. [DOI:10.1186/s12889-021-10816-7] [PMID] [PMCID]
36. Seboka BT, Yehualashet DE, Belay MM, Kabthymer RH, Ali H, Hailegebreal S, et al. Factors influencing covid-19 vaccination demand and intent in resource-limited settings: Based on health belief model. Risk Management and Healthcare Policy. 2021;14:2743. [DOI:10.2147/RMHP.S315043] [PMID] [PMCID]
37. Patwary MM, Bardhan M, Disha AS, Hasan M, Haque M, Sultana R, et al. Determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among the adult population of Bangladesh using the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behavior Model. Vaccines. 2021;9(12):1393. [DOI:10.3390/vaccines9121393] [PMID] [PMCID]
38. Abebe H, Shitu S, Mose A. Understanding of COVID-19 vaccine knowledge, attitude, acceptance, and determinates of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among adult population in Ethiopia. Infection and drug resistance. 2021;14:2015.. [DOI:10.2147/IDR.S312116] [PMID] [PMCID]
39. Chu H, Liu S. Integrating health behavior theories to predict American's intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Patient Education and Counseling. 2021;104(8):1878-86. [DOI:10.1016/j.pec.2021.02.031] [PMID] [PMCID]
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


Ethics code: Ir bmsu.rec.
Clinical trials code: ---

XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

kazemi J, Saffari M, Raei M, Rashidi-Jahan H, Rahmati F. The Design and Psychometric Properties of the Tendency to Use Covid-19 Vaccine Questionnaire based on the Health Belief Model. Iran J Health Educ Health Promot 2022; 10 (3) :299-315
URL: http://journal.ihepsa.ir/article-1-2100-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 10, Issue 3 (Autumn 2022) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه آموزش بهداشت و ارتقاء سلامت ایران Iranian Journal of Health Education and Health Promotion
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 4570