[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 9, Issue 3 (Autumn 2021) ::
Iran J Health Educ Health Promot 2021, 9(3): 246-257 Back to browse issues page
The Effectiveness web-based Educational Program on Optimal Use of Smartphones among Students with Nomophobia based on Self-Efficacy Theory: The Role of the Medical Librarian
Zahra Khosravi , Homamodin Javadzade , Marzieh Mahmoodi, Reza Basirian-Jahromi *
Abstract:   (2026 Views)
Background and Objective: Nomophobia is defined as the fear of being out of mobile phone contact and is considered a phobia of the modern age. The current study explored the effectiveness of the medical Librarian's web-based educational program on optimal use of smartphones among students with nomophobia based on self-efficacy theory.

Materials and Methods: This semi-experimental study applied random controlled clinical trial and before-after Design groups with a follow-up method. The population included all students of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. Of the population, 98 students with high score nomophobia were selected as a sample. They were divided into two groups, control, and intervention, randomly. The intervention group received a web-based educational program, plus an electronic pamphlet. Data were collected in two steps. SPSS software was used to analyze data.

Results: The results indicated that the nomophobia score in an intervention group reduced significantly (P<0.001), just two weeks after the intervention (54.1±16.20) in comparison to the before (78.3±22.11). Also, the average score of self-efficacy increased remarkably (P<0.001), after the intervention (36.3±4.20) than before (30.8±4.79). The score of nomophobia and self-efficacy showed a significant difference between the control and intervention groups.

Conclusion: Health-based educations, especially web-based educations, can be considered a good solution during the pandemics for target audiences. The useful web-based educational program could have improved the recognition of the students toward nomophobia and increase their self-efficacy.
Keywords: Medical librarian, Distance education, Internet addiction disorder, Self-efficacy
Full-Text [PDF 982 kb]   (754 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Health Promotion Interventions
Received: 2021/05/25 | Accepted: 2021/07/24
1. Askari S, Delavar, A, Farhangi AA. The relationship between mobile consumption pattern and "no mobile phobia" among mobile users in Tehran. Journal of Innovation and Creativity in Human Science. 2017;6(4): 197- 224.
2. zareipour M, Fattahi Ardakani M, Sotoudeh A, Tasouji Azari M. The Importance of Tele Education of Family Health Ambassadors in COVID -19 Prevention. Journal of Health Literacy. 2021;6(1):9-12.
3. Aliakbari R, Vahedian-Shahroodi M, Abusalehi A, Jafari A, Tehrani H. A digital-based education to improve occupational health and ergonomic conditions of dentists: an application of theory of planned behavior. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education. 2020;58(5):268-81. [DOI:10.1080/14635240.2019.1687316]
4. Savari Mombeni F, Babaei Heydarabadi A, Hatamzadeh N, Sharhani A. Investigating the effect of educational intervention based on Theory of Planned Behavior on the preventive behaviors regarding microbial and radiation complications of mobile phone in female students of secondary school. Iranian Journal of Health Education and Health Promotion. 2021;9(2):159-71. [DOI:10.52547/ijhehp.9.2.159]
5. Gutiérrez-Puertas L, Márquez-Hernández VV, São-Romão-Preto L, Granados-Gámez G, Gutiérrez-Puertas V, Aguilera-Manrique G. Comparative study of nomophobia among Spanish and Portuguese nursing students. Nurse Education in Practice. 2019;34:79-84. [DOI:10.1016/j.nepr.2018.11.010]
6. Pontes H, Caplan S, Griffiths M. Psychometric Validation of the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 in a Portuguese Sample. Computers in Human Behavior. 2016;63, 823-833. [DOI:10.1016/j.chb.2016.06.015]
7. King A, Valença A, Cardoso A, Sancassiani F, Machado S, Nardi A. "Nomophobia": Impact of Cell Phone Use Interfering with Symptoms and Emotions of Individuals with Panic Disorder Compared with a Control Group. Clinical practice and epidemiology in mental health : CP & EMH. 2014;10:28-35. [DOI:10.2174/1745017901410010028]
8. Prasad M, Patthi B, Singla A, Gupta R, Saha S, Kumar JK, et al. Nomophobia: A cross-sectional study to assess mobile phone usage among dental students. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2017;11(2): 34-39. [DOI:10.7860/JCDR/2017/20858.9341]
9. Davoudi R, Manshaee G, golparvar M. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Emotion focused therapy and Adolescent-centered Mindfulness Therapy on Nomophobia Symptoms and Sleep Quality of Girls with Nomophobic Symptoms. Iranian Journal of Psychiatric Nursing (IJPN). 2020;7(5):63-71
10. Mohammadi Nasab N, Manshaei G, Nadi MA. The effectiveness of reality therapy on self esteem and symptoms of mobile phobia Secondary school students with mobile phobia.6th International Conference on Psychology of Education Sciences and Lifestyle. 2020 .[In Persian] [DOI:10.5812/ijpbs.109291]
11. Shahrzadi L, Ashrafi-rizi H. Health Information Consulting: Key Role of medical Librarians . J Med Educ Dev. 2016; 9 (21) :1-4 .
12. Zeinali V, Riahinia N. Information Therapy Services in Educational Hospitals: a Feasibility Study in Educational Hospitals of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. 2015 .
13. Roper T. The impact of the clinical librarian: a review. Journal of EAHIL L-1841-0715. 2015; 11, 19-22.
14. Sagone E, De Caroli M. E, Falanga R, Indiana ML. Resilience and perceived self-efficacy in life skills from early to late adolescence. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth. 2020; 25(1), 882-890. [DOI:10.1080/02673843.2020.1771599]
15. Bozzato P, Longobardi C, Fabris MA. Problematic gambling behaviour in adolescents: prevalence and its relation to social, self-regulatory, and academic self-efficacy. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth. 2020;25(1):907-919. [DOI:10.1080/02673843.2020.1772842]
16. Amirizadeh S, Shakerinejad G, Shahri P, Saki malehi A. Application of Self-Efficacy Theory in Nutrition Education for Weight Control in Obese and Overweight Female High School Students. Iran J Health Educ Health Promot. 2016; 4 (2):139-148. [DOI:10.18869/acadpub.ihepsaj.4.2.139]
17. Pourrazavi S, Alan Verdipour H, Topchian A. Determination of the predictive role of self-regulation and self-control on intemperate use of cell phones by students. Avicenna Journal Of Clinical Medicine (Scientific Journal of Hamadan University Of Medical Sciences and Health Services). 2015;22(2) (SN 76):152-160.
18. Eide TA, Aarestad SH, Pallesen S, Andreassen CS, Bilder RM. Smartphone restriction and its effect on subjective withdrawal related scores. Frontiers in Psychology. 2018; 9. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01444]
19. Chiu SI. The relationship between life stress and smartphone addiction on taiwanese university student: A mediation model of learning self-Efficacy and social self-Efficacy. Computers in Human Behavior. 2014; 34, 49-57. [DOI:10.1016/j.chb.2014.01.024]
20. Lee YK, Chang CT, Cheng Z.H, Lin Y. How Social Anxiety and Reduced Self-Efficacy Induce Smartphone Addiction in Materialistic People. Social Science Computer Revie.2016; 36(1), 36-56. [DOI:10.1177/0894439316685540]
21. Darasian Salmasi A, Rezakhani S. The contribution of self-efficacy and sensation-seeking in predicting internet addiction in girls. Women's Studies Sociological and Psychological. 2019; 17(3): 31-56.
22. Shin JH, Jang M. Effect of Group Sandplay Therapy to be Addicted Youth's Addiction Levels and Anxiety. Journal of Symbols & Sandplay Therapy. 2017; 7, 39-55. [DOI:10.12964/jsst.160002]
23. Sedighi arfaee F, Tabesh R. The effectiveness of life skills training on loneliness and social competence of girl adolescents with symptoms of nomophobia. Rooyesh. 2021; 9 (12) :33-42. [In Persian]
24. Yildirim C, Correia A-P. Exploring the dimensions of nomophobia: Development and validation of a self-reported questionnaire. Computers in Human Behavior. 2015;49:130-137. [DOI:10.1016/j.chb.2015.02.059]
25. Sayah S, Ghadami A, Azadi F. Psychometric properties of the nomophobia questionnaire (NMP-Q) among Iranian students. Psychometry.2018;6:7-25.
26. Keshavarz D, Keshavarz Arekesh R, Mousavi AM. The Comparison of Coping Strategies and Self-Efficacy in Internet Addiction Normal Users. Quarterly Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy. 2015;4(15). [DOI:10.1057/9781137465078_3]
27. Morovati Z, Yadgari R. Comparison of loneliness and coping self-efficacy in cell phone addicted and normal female college students. Journal of Psychological Achievements (JOURNAL OF EDUCATION & PSYCHOLOGY). 2020;26(2 (22) ), 243-262.
28. Mohebi Amin A, Rabiei M. Study of the Relationship between Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Creative Teaching in Mashhad Nursing and Midwifery Faculty. Research in Medical Education. 2019;11(1):10-9. [DOI:10.29252/rme.11.1.10]
29. Sevari K, Manshedavi S. The efficacy of self-awareness training on reduction of internet addiction and loneliness and increase of self-efficacy. Clinical psychology studies. 2016;6(22):163-179.
30. Hosseini T, torabi SS, shayan N, Ismaeel Poor M, Ashoori J. Comparing the effects of web-based teaching and cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies on nursing students' academic achievement and self-efficacy, Islamic Azad University, pishva branch. interdisciplinary journal of virtual learning in medical sciences (IJVLMS). 2015;6(2):1-10.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


Ethics code: IR.BPUMS.REC.1399.085

XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Khosravi Z, Javadzade H, Mahmoodi M, Basirian-Jahromi R. The Effectiveness web-based Educational Program on Optimal Use of Smartphones among Students with Nomophobia based on Self-Efficacy Theory: The Role of the Medical Librarian. Iran J Health Educ Health Promot. 2021; 9 (3) :246-257
URL: http://journal.ihepsa.ir/article-1-1711-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 9, Issue 3 (Autumn 2021) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه آموزش بهداشت و ارتقاء سلامت ایران Iranian Journal of Health Education and Health Promotion
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 4419