[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
Main Menu
Journal Information::
Articles archive::
For Authors::
Publication Ethics::
Editorial policy::
Contact us::
Site Facilities::
Citation Impact
Search in website

Advanced Search
Receive site information
Enter your Email in the following box to receive the site news and information.
COPE Membership


Creative Commons Licence
Open access
:: Volume 11, Issue 2 (Summer 2023) ::
Iran J Health Educ Health Promot 2023, 11(2): 127-140 Back to browse issues page
Applying the Social Cognitive Theory for predicting the related factors to mental health of middle-age women referring to comprehensive health services centers
Fataneh Bakhshi , Abolhasan Afkar , Saeed Omidi , Rabiollah Farmanbar , Narjes Nikpey * , Asyeh Akbari
Abstract:   (1180 Views)
Background and Object: Mental health as one of the dimensions of health is especially important in middle-aged women. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to mental health based on social cognitive theory in middle-aged women referring to the comprehensive health service centers in 2019.

Materials and Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 438 middle-aged women referring to three comprehensive health service centers by random sampling in 2019. The questionnaire used consisted of three sections: demographic characteristics, mental health and the structure of social cognitive theory. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 18 software using descriptive and inferential statistical tests.

Results: The structures of self-efficacy (p-value < 0/001, β = -0/62), social support (p-value = 0/002, β=-0/12) and self-control (p-value=0/001, β = -0/17) showed a significant and inverse relationship with mental health. According to the results, social cognitive theory constructs were able to significantly explain the mental health of the studied women and predict 61% of their mental health changes.

Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, self-efficacy and social support were the main determinants of mental health in middle-aged women, therefore, in planning interventions to improve the mental health of this group, more emphasis can be placed on strategies to improve the aforementioned structures.
Keywords: mental health, women, middle- age, social cognitive theory
Full-Text [PDF 728 kb]   (1035 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Health Education & Health Promotion
Received: 2022/10/4 | Accepted: 2023/04/12
1. Organization WH. The WHO special initiative for mental health (2019-2023): universal health coverage for mental health. World Health Organization; 2019.
2. Hoeymans N, Garssen AA, Westert GP, Verhaak PF. Measuring mental health of the Dutch population: a comparison of the GHQ-12 and the MHI-5. Health and quality of life outcomes. 2004;2(1):1-6. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7525-2-23 [DOI:10.1186/1477-7525-2-1] [PMID] [PMCID]
3. Yousefi F, Mohamadkhani M. Investigation of studentsâ mental health at Kurdistan University of Medical Science and it related with age, gender and their academic courses. Medical journal of mashhad university of medical sciences. 2014;56(6):354-61.
4. Jafari A, Nejatian M, Momeniyan V, Barsalani FR, Tehrani H. Mental health literacy and quality of life in Iran: a cross-sectional study. BMC psychiatry. 2021;21:1-11. [DOI:10.1186/s12888-021-03507-5] [PMID] [PMCID]
5. Noorbala AA, Bagheri Yazdi SA, Asadi Lari M, Vaez Mahdavi MR. Mental health status of individuals fifteen years and older in Tehran-Iran (2009). Iranian journal of psychiatry and clinical psychology. 2011;16(4):479-83.
6. Moeini B, Rezapur-Shahkolai F, Tapak L, Geravandi A, Parsamajd S. Relationship between Happiness and Mental Health with Social Capital among Health Workers. J Educ Community Health. 2020;7(2):119-25. [DOI:10.29252/jech.7.2.119]
7. Abusalehi A, Vahedian-Shahroodi M, Esmaily H, Jafari A, Tehrani H. Mental health promotion of the elderly in nursing homes: a social-cognitive intervention. International Journal of Gerontology. 2021;15(3):221-7.
8. Ahmadi B, Farzadi F, Alimohammadian M. Women's health in Iran: issues and challenges. 2012.
9. Peyman N, Mahdizadeh M, Taghipour A, Esmaily H. Using of social cognitive theory: predictors of physical activity among women with diabetestype 2. Journal of Research and Health. 2013;3(2):345-54.
10. Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Zhao S, Nelson CB, Hughes M, Eshleman S, et al. Lifetime and 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-III-R Psychiatric Disorders in the United States: Results From the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1994;51(1):8-19. [DOI:10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950010008002] [PMID]
11. Anbari M, Haghi S. A Study of Role Changes and Happiness of Rural Women. Journal of Applied Sociology. 2021;32(1):23-58.
12. Williams HM, Zeldman A, Freedman Z, Deci E, Elder D, Moser SM, et al. Instructional design strategies for health behavior change, MB Kinzie (USA) 3. Patient Education and Counseling. 2005;56:361-3. [DOI:10.1016/j.pec.2004.02.005] [PMID]
13. Nutbeam D, Harris E, Wise W. Theory in a nutshell: a practical guide to health promotion theories: McGraw-Hill; 2010.
14. Artino AR, La Rochelle JS, Durning SJ. Second‐year medical students' motivational beliefs, emotions, and achievement. Medical education. 2010;44(12):1203-12. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03712.x] [PMID]
15. Glanz K, Rimer BK, Viswanath K. Health behavior and health education: theory, research, and practice: John Wiley & Sons; 2008.
16. Sharma M. Theoretical foundations of health education and health promotion: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2021.
17. Schulz U, Schwarzer R. Long-term effects of spousal support on coping with cancer after surgery. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. 2004;23(5):716-32. [DOI:10.1521/jscp.23.5.716.50746]
18. Moradi A, Taheri S, Javanbakht F, Taheri A. A meta-analysis on the relationship between mental health and social support in Iran. Journal of Research in Behavioual science. (10 (6)):565-73.
19. Wallston KA. The validity of the multidimensional health locus of control scales. Journal of health psychology. 2005;10(5):623-31. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105305055301 [DOI:10.1177/1359105305055304] [PMID]
20. Zimmerman BJ. Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. Handbook of self-regulation: Elsevier; 2000. p. 13-39. [DOI:10.1016/B978-012109890-2/50031-7]
21. Vorhaus J, MacGregor A, Salter E, Duckworth K. Self regulated learning: a review of literature. 2009.
22. Jamali M, Noroozi A, Tahmasebi R. Factors Affecting Academic Self-Efficacy and Its Association with Academic Achievment among Students of Bushehr University Medical Sciences 2012-13. Iranian Journal of Medical Education. 2013;13(8):629-41.
23. towhidian y, Navabakhsh M, agha jani mera h. Investigating the Impact of Citizenship Awareness on Social Cohesion in Tehran at Local Level. Journal of Socio - Cultural Changes. 2021;17(4):1-12.
24. Shakib Z, Tahmasebi R, Norouzi A. Factors affecting the mental health of high school girls in Bushehr based on social cognitive theory. Health Educ Health Promot. 2014;2(2):131-42.
25. Nourbala AA, Bagheri YS, Mohammad K. The validation of general health questionnaire-28 as a psychiatric screening tool. 2009.
26. Taghavi S. Validity and reliability of the general health questionnaire (ghq-28) in college students of shiraz university. Journal of psychology. 2002;5(4):381-98.
27. Maleki Pirbazari M, Nouri R, Sarami G. Social support and depression symptoms: The mediating role of self-efficacy. Contemporary Psychology, Biannual Journal of the Iranian Psychological Association. 2012;6(2):26-34.
28. Jalily M, Barati M, Bashirian S. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Determine Factors Predicting Nutritional Behaviors in Pregnant Women Visiting Health Centers in Tabriz, Iran. Journal of Education and Community Health. 2015;1(4):11-21. [DOI:10.20286/jech-010411]
29. Ghorbani A, Golchin M. Investigating the mental health status of women in Qazvin Province (2008). Journal of Inflammatory Diseases. 2011;15(1):56-62.
30. Solhi M, Kazemi SS, Haghni H. Relationship between general health and self-efficacy in women referred to health center No. 2 in Chaloos (2012). Razi Journal of Medical Sciences. 2013;20(109):72-9.
31. Koohpaei A, Khandan M, Arab Z, Mobinizadeh V, Moamenian S. Survey of mental health status among female workers in Qom province in 2014: Opportunities and challenges. Journal of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences. 2015;14(8):691-700.
32. Talarowska M, Chodkiewicz J, Nawrocka N, Miniszewska J, Biliński P. Mental health and the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic-Polish research study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020;17(19):7015. [DOI:10.3390/ijerph17197015] [PMID] [PMCID]
33. Tudor K. Mental health promotion: Paradigms and practice: Routledge; 2013. [DOI:10.4324/9781315812670]
34. Fazeldehkordi, khorsandi M, Roozbehani N, Mehdi R, Rajabi M. APPLICATION OF SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY FOR PREDICTING STRESS IN NON-NATIVE NEW STUDENTS OF ARAK UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES 2015-2016. Nursing and Midwifery Journal. 2018;16(7):517-26.
35. Afrooz GA, Motamedi F. Self efficacy and mental health of gifted and normal students. 2005.
36. Jamali M, Noroozi A, Tahmasebi R. Application of the basic constructs of social cognitive theory for predicting mental health in student of Bushehr University Medical Sciences 2012-13. ISMJ. 2015;17(6):1236-51.
37. Richardson A, Field T, Newton R, Bendell D. Locus of control and prenatal depression. Infant Behavior and Development. 2012;35(4):662-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.infbeh.2012.07.006] [PMID] [PMCID]
38. Mousavomoghadam SRA, Nouri T, Khodadadi T, Ahmadi A, Ghiasi G. Association of Internet Addiction and Self-Control with Mental Health Among Students of the University of Applied Sciences and Technology, Ilam City, Iran. Journal of School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research. 2017;15(1):1-8.
39. Mizbani S, Ghasri Z, Sedaghat-Fard F, Gomroki H, Amidi-Mazaheri M. Investigating the Relationship between Mental Health with Self-Control and Life Satisfaction in Students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2019. Journal of Health System Research. 2022;17(4):275-81.
40. Bandura A, Walters RH. Social learning theory: Englewood cliffs Prentice Hall; 1977.
41. Moshki M, Ghofranipour F, Hajizadeh E, Azadfallah P. Validity and reliability of the multidimensional health locus of control scale for college students. BMC Public health. 2007;7(1):1-6. [DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-7-295] [PMID] [PMCID]
42. Tsionis A, Pantoglou D, Kasvikis Y. Mental health locus of control in refugees with clinically established psychopathology. Psychiatrike= Psychiatriki. 2022. [DOI:10.22365/jpsych.2022.094] [PMID]
43. Saeidimehr S, Delbari A, Zanjari N, Fadaye Vatan R. Factors Related to Frailty Among Older Adults in Khuzestan, Iran. Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing. 2021;16(2):202-17. [DOI:10.32598/sija.16.2.1600.1]
44. Takmaz T, Gundogmus I, Okten SB, Gunduz A. The impact of COVID‐19‐related mental health issues on menstrual cycle characteristics of female healthcare providers. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research. 2021;47(9):3241-9. [DOI:10.1111/jog.14900] [PMID] [PMCID]
45. Karademas EC, Kalantzi-Azizi A. The stress process, self-efficacy expectations, and psychological health. Personality and individual differences. 2004;37(5):1033-43. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2003.11.012]
46. Parto M, Besharat MA. The direct and indirect effects of self-efficacy and problem solving on mental health in adolescents: Assessing the role of coping strategies as mediating mechanism. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2011;30:639-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.125 [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.124]
47. Nabavi SS, Sohrabi F, Afrooz G, Delavar A, Hosseinian S. Relationship between self-efficacy and mental health among teachers: the role of perceived social support. 2017. [DOI:10.29252/rph.11.2.50]
48. Shojaee M. Mental health components and locus of control: Mount Saint Vincent University; 2014.
49. Shin S, Lee E. Relationships among the Internal Health Locus of Control, Mental Health Problems, and Subjective Well-Being of Adults in South Korea. Healthcare. 2021;9(11):1588. [DOI:10.3390/healthcare9111588] [PMID] [PMCID]
50. Wilcox G, Nordstokke D. Predictors of university student satisfaction with life, academic self-efficacy, and achievement in the first year. Canadian Journal of Higher Education/Revue canadienne d'enseignement supérieur. 2019;49(1):104-24. [DOI:10.47678/cjhe.v49i1.188230]
51. Zeinivanmoghadam L, Jalilian M, Mirzaei A. Predictors of Fruits and Vegetable Consumption in Adolescent Girls Based on Social Cognitive Theory. J Educ Community Health. 2020;7(4):285-91. [DOI:10.29252/jech.7.4.285]
52. Yaghoti H, Tol A, Sadeghi R, Mazloumi A, Rahimi Foroushani A, Ghaderi A. Assessing Predictive Factors of Awareness in Personal Protective Equipment Use (PPEs) among Workers Employed at Iran Aluminium Company (IRALCO): Application of Social Cognitive Theory. Journal of Health and Safety at Work. 2021;11(1):13-25.
53. Shahangian SA, Tabesh M, Yazdanpanah M. Psychosocial determinants of household adoption of water-efficiency behaviors in Tehran capital, Iran: Application of the social cognitive theory. Urban Climate. 2021;39:100935. [DOI:10.1016/j.uclim.2021.100935]
54. Smith AJ, Felix ED, Benight CC, Jones RT. Protective factors, coping appraisals, and social barriers predict mental health following community violence: A prospective test of social cognitive theory. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2017;30(3):245-53. [DOI:10.1002/jts.22197] [PMID]
55. Grey I, Arora T, Thomas J, Saneh A, Tohme P, Abi-Habib R. The role of perceived social support on depression and sleep during the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychiatry Research. 2020;293:113452. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113452] [PMID] [PMCID]
56. Ye Z, Yang X, Zeng C, Wang Y, Shen Z, Li X, et al. Resilience, Social Support, and Coping as Mediators between COVID-19-related Stressful Experiences and Acute Stress Disorder among College Students in China. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being. 2020;12(4):1074-94. [DOI:10.1111/aphw.12211] [PMID] [PMCID]
57. Fooladvand K, Farzad V, Shahraray M, Sangari AA. Role of social support, academic stress and academic self-efficacy on mental and physical health. Contemp Psychol. 2009;4(2):81-93.
58. ghasemipoor m, jahanbakhsh ganje s. The relationship between the social support and mental health in Lorestan university students in 2009. scientific magazine yafte. 2010;12(1):0-.
59. Kurtović A, Vuković I, Gajić M. The Effect of Locus of Control on University Students' Mental Health: Possible Mediation through Self-Esteem and Coping. The Journal of Psychology. 2018;152(6):341-57. [DOI:10.1080/00223980.2018.1463962] [PMID]
60. Origlio J, Odar Stough C. Locus of control and pre-pandemic depressive symptoms relate to psychological adjustment of college students to the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of American College Health. 2022:1-8. [DOI:10.1080/07448481.2022.2047699] [PMID]
61. Jain M, Singh S. Locus of control and its relationship with mental health and adjustment among adolescent females. Journal of Mental Health and Human Behaviour. 2015;20(1):16. [DOI:10.4103/0971-8990.164803]
62. Baponi Tebtan A, Yawaryan R. Determining Self-Control And Tolerance For Failure Among The Students Of Urmia University Of Medical Sciences: Two Effective Features On Mental Health. Nursing And Midwifery Journal. 2021;19(8):655-63. [DOI:10.52547/unmf.19.8.655]
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


Ethics code: IR.GUMS.REC.1398.385

XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Bakhshi F, Afkar A, Omidi S, Farmanbar R, Nikpey N, Akbari A. Applying the Social Cognitive Theory for predicting the related factors to mental health of middle-age women referring to comprehensive health services centers. Iran J Health Educ Health Promot 2023; 11 (2) :127-140
URL: http://journal.ihepsa.ir/article-1-2220-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 11, Issue 2 (Summer 2023) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه آموزش بهداشت و ارتقاء سلامت ایران Iranian Journal of Health Education and Health Promotion
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 44 queries by YEKTAWEB 4642