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:: Volume 4, Issue 1 (Spring 2016) ::
Iran J Health Educ Health Promot 2016, 4(1): 58-64 Back to browse issues page
Identification of Factors Associated with Breast Cancer Screening Based on the PEN-3 Model among Female School Teachers in Kermanshah
Abolhasan Naghibi *, Parvane Jamshidi, Jamshid Yazdani, Fereshteh Rostami
Abstract:   (8225 Views)

Background and objective:  Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Its incidence has increased in developing countries due to factors such as increase in life expectancy, urbanization and popularity of western culture. The aim of this study was to identify the social and cultural factors affecting breast cancer screening based on the PEN-3 model (perceptional, enabling and nurturers) among school teachers in Kermanshah, Iran.

Materials and methods: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional one. Through random sampling 258 high school teachers were selected as samples. A questionnaire that consisted with 50 questions based on the PEN-3 model was used to gather the data. The validity of the questionnaire was measured with content validity and the reliability with Cronbach alpha coefficient. The data were analyzed through SPSS 21 using one-sample t-test, two-sample t-test and Chi-square test.

Results: 48.1% of school teachers had a history of breast self-examination, 24.8% history of breast clinical examination by the physician and medical staff and 9.3% had at least one mammography. The most important affecting factors on screening were: belief to early detection of tumors (87.2%), ability to pay the screening cost (83.7%), negligence and forgetfulness (65.1%), being busy and lack of time (56.2%), fear (24.5%), and anxiety (21.3%).

Conclusion: Due to fact that the affecting factors on breast cancer screening behavior are in the scope of the social and cultural range, a comprehensive plan for intervention and using a health education model, including the PEN-3 model, can be useful.

Paper Type: Research Article.

Keywords: Early detection of cancer, Breast cancer, PEN-3 Model, Screening, School teachers, Kermanshah.
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Type of Study: Research |
Received: 2015/04/25 | Accepted: 2016/06/13
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Naghibi A, Jamshidi P, Yazdani J, Rostami F. Identification of Factors Associated with Breast Cancer Screening Based on the PEN-3 Model among Female School Teachers in Kermanshah. Iran J Health Educ Health Promot. 2016; 4 (1) :58-64
URL: http://journal.ihepsa.ir/article-1-306-en.html

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Volume 4, Issue 1 (Spring 2016) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه آموزش بهداشت و ارتقاء سلامت ایران Iranian Journal of Health Education and Health Promotion
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